Several types of Laser Detection and Ranging can be used in tandem to improve the productivity of a mining company, increasing profits while lowering the total cost of exploration. The type of LIDAR used will depend on the type of ore that you are looking for, as well as its location.
Remote Sensing or RADAR: This is a laser-based instrument that can transmit data via radio waves in real-time image. By using RADAR LIDAR the actual depth of the target area, the distance to the target and the elevation of the terrain can be recorded for analysis later. These types of LIDARs are also used in sonar to reveal subsurface objects such as oil and gas deposits.
Terrestrial and/or Marine Applications: LIDAR and other forms of LIDAR are used in the field for surveying, mining and geophysical activities. The use of LIDAR is especially important in drilling rigs, surface vessel fleets, and submarines.
Aerial Applications: While the use of LIDAR is especially useful in oil exploration, it is also used for searching for archaeological sites and locating bodies of water or land. Remote sensing and radar applications also include military mapping of locations for UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) and anti-submarine warfare.
Quality of the LIDAR is essential to the success of any application. There are several factors to consider, such as beam width, acquisition coverage, interval between retransmissions, detection range, low-intensity target response time, LIDAR envelope size, and accuracy, to name a few.
High Power Energy Bandwidth: All high-resolution sensor technologies have similar requirements, which are bandwidth, power, beamwidth, and acquisition coverage. Because these systems use LIDAR, their capabilities may vary widely. It is important to take into account beamwidth when planning the energy band of the system. When choosing a scanning mode, the frequency should be chosen to fit the mission.
Precision: This will impact the performance of the sensor. As the Earth's surface moves over time, how accurate a sensor can be is limited by gravity and air friction. Because of this, and the fact that the Earth moves, the accuracy of LIDAR can change over time, so it is important to buy equipment that can be trusted for years to come.
Acquisition Coverage: The more areas the LIDAR can cover, the more accurate the system is likely to be. Since the Earth moves over time, the sensor needs to be capable of scanning many thousands of square kilometers at a time.
Acquisition Frequency: Since the Earth moves over time, the acquisition frequency has a significant impact on the accuracy of the LIDAR. It is necessary to scan many square kilometers at one time, and the acquisition frequency needs to cover the areas that will move over time.
Accuracy: While any types of LIDAR can be used to detect and determine the depth of the terrain, accuracy will increase with the addition of distance to the target. A higher range will allow the operator to acquire more target detection areas at one time, increasing the chance of a hit.
Low-Intensity LIDAR: Many types of lasers are used to produce high-precision but low-intensity beams for all kinds of application, including such devices as land surveyors, oil and gas surveyors, and surveying equipment. This is a higher power than a typical LIDAR.
In general, the lowest effective power is in the 900 MHz range, so high power beams are necessary. Low-intensity laser systems use what is called a small-impedance pulse train, or a pulse train of pulses with a very low impedance. This eliminates the problem of getting rid of too much power for surface areas, such as mountains or valleys, where there is little heat source.